Esri makes the most popular and most used GIS software. They have created and acquired software that is now all intetgrated into their ArcGIS Platform. ArcGIS provides a robust GIS solution that will support users in every industry with access from the desktop, online, and in the field. ArcGIS only works on the Windows OS, however, the server product can be installed on Linux as well.
Visit their website at www.esri.com
MapInfo has been used by many business over the years. They were recently acquired by Precisely a new company formed when Syncsort and Pitney Bowes Software & Data (who had acquired MapInfo) combined. MapInfo was a simple to use desktop GIS software, but lacked the number of tools that ArcGIS had. It will interesting to see where it goes with Precisely.
Visit their website at www.precisely.com
Global Mapper by Blue Marble Geographic is lesser known but is a great desktop GIS software package. If you need to analyse geospatial data this software has you covered and it is very reasonably priced. There are several powerful analysis tools that are included that ArcGIS would require you to buy additional extensions.
Visit their website at www.bluemarblegeo.com/global-mapper
Open source software
OS: Windows, Mac, Linux
QGIS is the most popular and most used open source desktop GIS software package. It started as Quantum GIS in 2002 and then the name was shortened to QGIS in 2013. Not only is the core product very powerful and easy to ues, there are so many plugins (extensions) that are available to add even more functionality. Unlike many of the commercial GIS software packages, QGIS is also available on both the Mac and Linux OS.
Visit their website at www.qgis.org
Note: States without links did not have secure websites (https) so no link is provided, but they may have data available
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In no particular order